2018 Fire Policy

The Fire and Safety staff’s word is law. If we feel that your fire is unsafe, do not argue. Fix it.


  • Cigarettes, cigars, joints, vapes, pipes, dabs, etc. – allowed in private camps
    • Please have a safe extinguishing method (not field stripping, not in a trash can,  something like a bucket of sand or an extinguishing thing from the dollar store)
  • Coal Hookahs are NOT allowed
    • E-hookahs (using the same technology as a vape pen) are permitted in camp.
  • If you wish to smoke and are not in a camp with safe smoking equipment (extinguishing thing or jar of dirt , etc.), you MUST move to a designated smoking area before lighting up (They will be marked)
    • Smoking areas will be located:
      • Party Circles
      • Merchants circle
      • War Field  (close enough for convenience, far enough to keep smoke away from the crowds)
      • Near the galley (close enough for convenience, far enough to keep smoke away from the food)
      • Periodically spaced out along the roads,
        • These will be maintained by private encampments, please be respectful of their space and property,
          • This is not an invite into their camp unless they ACTUALLY invite you into their camp.
      • In the badlands
      • Near (or in) the berm
      • Parking
      • Anywhere else that the following staff see fit: Fire Marshals, Head Constab, Constab LT’s, Autocrats. AGAIN, THEY WILL BE MARKED/DESIGNATED
      • In your own vehicle (do NOT flick your ashes outside, you must use an internal ashtray/butt receptacle)
  • Smoking anywhere else besides in your camp or in a designated area will result in 2 warnings before being asked to leave site.
    • This includes a “quick walk to the other camp, or to a designated area or whatever”
    • If you are smoking, then you are STATIONARY. Period. End of story. No exceptions.
      • If you must move around, extinguish your smoke and start again once you arrive at your destination       

Fire Pits/Heaters/Lanterns/Lamps/Stoves/Gen. Camping

All fire pits, torches, and open flame sources must be inspected by one of the constables.

To get your fire inspected, set up your firepit or torches where they are going to stay, and set up the structures that will be nearby. Get your extinguishing supplies out and set them up nearby. They will need to stay there, the roving constables will be performing spot checks to make sure you have them nearby and visible. Once these are in place, seek out the fire marshal, block constable, Karma, or a Lieutenant  and they will come write a permit for your camp.

Propane cook stoves set on a safe raised surface are usually fine and do not need inspection.

  • Propane Heaters are ALLOWED.
  • No fireworks of any kind are allowed. This is an offense that will get you removed from site immediately.
  • Propane lanterns are ALLOWED
    • Glass globe must be intact
    • Must be secured as to not tip over
    • Globe/light source must be 18 inches off the ground
    • No mobile forms of fire are allowed. Even gas lanterns need to be in a static location.
    • Torches and lanterns must be securely mounted. This means free-standing wooden tiki torches are not enough by themselves, as the ground on site will not hold them up. A “portable hole” or piece of rebar pounded into the ground and tied to the torch is usually enough. If must withstand a light kick or trip as a test.
  • Propane/Kerosene/White gas cooking items (stoves/grills) are allowed
    • Flames must be contained
    • Heat/Flame must be 18 inches off the ground
    • Must be on a stable surface
    • All propane tanks 5lbs or heavier must be secured in place by rope or ratchet straps
    • Should have an ABC Fire extinguisher quickly available
      • Should be at least 10 feet away from stove, but no more than 25 feet away
      • 5lb 1A10BC works great and is available at most stores
    • Must be 100% enclosed
    • Needs FIRE MARSHAL approval
  • ANY item needing OIL as a fuel is allowed (such as table lamps or hurricane lamps)
  • OPEN FLAMES ARE ALLOWED (candles, etc.)2223
  • Fire pits must follow the fire pit guidelines below:
    • Must be 18 inches from the ground to the bottom of the pit containing fire, or 12 inches if there is a separate heat shield between the ground and the pit. (Rule of 18/12)
    • The fire pit should be stable. If it is not tall enough on its own legs, it must be elevated safely by putting it on something solid, like cinder block.
    • The fire must not be under anything, such as a tree or pavilion.
    • The area surrounding the fire should be clear of flammable debris.
    • You must have two extinguishing devices or methods within easy sight of the fire.

Anyone caught with a fire that is not permitted will have it put out, and will go the rest of that night without fire. If it happens again, your camp will be required to leave.

Fires must be attended at all times. Unattended fires will be put out, and your fire permit will be pulled for the remainder of the weekend.


  1. Fire Gear – there are a wide variety of props and we can not possibly think of them all but all props will follow the same guidelines for safety.
    1. Props must be extinguishable by no more than 2 safeties when fully fueled and lit
      1. Or by 1 safety if only 2 safeties are working a performance
    2. Props must be made from flame proof material
      1. Shafted tools (clubs, staff) should either be made of fireproof materials (metal, carbon fiber, etc) or have a protective covering that extends at least 4 inches beyond typical flame contact zones (for a spinning staff, this is 4 inches in either direction of a wick).
      2. Handles should be attached with much the same care as wicks. Balls or tethers should not depend on glue or friction to remain on the shaft; some hard device should be employed to maintain attachment.
      3. Chain grips should be made of durable materials, or augmented with metal grommets when soft goods (e.g. leather, nylon) are used, and should be thoroughly checked before each use. Any sign of wear should be considered cause for replacement.
      4. Kevlar wicking
        1. Wicks should be attached to the fire tool via some hard limiting method. Wire, screws or bolts should be run through the wick and device.
        2. Glues or friction should not be the primary method of wick attachment.
        3. Wicks should be made in such a way as to prevent loss of any part during use, typically by using fireproof materials in construction.
      5. Connectors
        1. If the device has multiple connected parts or chains, the connectors attaching all parts together should be of a sealed ring type rated above the maximum possible stress that can be applied to the device.
        2. Any connectors that could be exposed to heat should be made of tempered metal; not plastics, drop forged or spring metal.
        3. Some slightly flammable material may be attached at the discretion of designated personnel; such as athletic tape for grip, or reflective tape on the handle, “crackers” at the end of a whip, etc.
    3. Props must be sound
      1. Bolts, Screws, and glue (to control fraying) is tight
      2. Wicking is not frayed unreasonably
      3. Metal is free from stress fractures
      4. Welds are secure
      5. Tape is secure
      6. Prop generally looks in good condition (is not bent, warped, or unreasonably damaged)
      7. Before each use, the troupe leader and/or Head Safety should inspect each device to insure that all parts are in good condition and stable. A quick test is to grasp each wick and tug it away from the normal point of contact.
      8. Grips and handles should be thoroughly checked for security and the wicks should be tested thoroughly. Any sign of wear should be treated as a failure.
  2. Safety equipment
    1. Required:
      1. Two 5-gallon buckets at least 3/4ths full of water
        1. towels may not be in the bucket to measure the 3/4ths full benchmark
        2. No bucket may be closer than 10 feet to fueling station
      2. 1 safety towel per bucket
        1. Roughly 35” X 60” (bath towel size)
        2. kept outside of the bucket during performance
        3. Should be wet but not soaked when in use
        4. Recommended color: White or black
      3. 1 hand/kitchen sized “blot” towel
        1. to blot excess fuel from props if a shake off area is not available or prop does not allow for shake off
        2. Kept near fueling station
        3. roughly 16” X 28” (kitchen towel size)
        4. Must be a different color than your wet towels or wipe towels, recommended color: red
        5. Must be kept free from water for optimal fuel absorption
        6. Should be treated as a “fueled wick” at all times (kept away from flame)
      4. 1 wipe towel per performer on stage
        1. To be used by fire breathers to wipe excess oil off from their face
        2. roughly 13” X 13” (washcloth sized)
        3. Different color than your blot towel, Recommended: striped or contrasting pattern for easy identification
        4. Kept dry for optimal oil absorption
        5. Kept with performer or near fueling station
      5. Towels in general-
        1. All towels should be terry cloth or ot her high absorbency material
        2. Must be free from holes bigger than a quarter
        3. Must be free from large tears
      6. Extinguishers
        1. 2 Type 2a-10bc.  Chemical extinguishers.
        2. 2  Type 2a pressure h20 extinguisher
        3. Pressure gage must be showing as green (or full)
        4. Hose must be intact
        5. Must be free from obvious damage
        6. To be kept with a safety bucket
        7. Current inspection tag as per local laws is also recommended.
      7. Advanced first aid kit
        1. Must contain equipment to treat  several burns roughly the size of the palm of a hand (roughly 4X4 inches)
      8. IN THE CASE OF A BODY IMMOLATION – The safety standards will be discussed with and agreed upon by Head of constab (or designated person such as Head Fire Marshal), Lead Safety personnel, and Stunt person in question.

    1. Suggested
      1. Medical information on every performer and safety or “non performing” person working the show
      2. Instant ice packs
      3. Burn cream (Silver sulfadiazine)
      4. Guaifenesin (mucinex) for oil or smoke inhalation
      5. Extra Large gauze
      6. Self adhesive wraps
      7. Medical Scissors
      8. Additional safety stations, (buckets)
      9. Additional fire extinguishers (1 per bucket)
      10. Cell phone with good charge to call 911
      11. Albuterol inhaler (in case of inhalation of fuel or smoke)
      12. Fire suppression blanket
      13. Water extinguisher (for small ground fires or “fuel spit”)

  1. Safety personnel
    1. Must have 1 designated “head safety”
      1. Is not performing at any time during that particular performance
      2. Knows where all safety equipment is/needs to be located at all times
      3. Responsible for all performers adhering to all safety procedures
      4. Should have strong first aid or medical training including extensive burn type injury treatment knowledge
        1. Heat burns
        2. Chemical burns
        3. Sunburns (and how they react to heat and chemical burns/treatments)
    2. Must have at least 1 additional safety per 2 performers on stage
      1. May be “rotating” safety (meaning the person attending the safety station may swap out with other performers so they can perform as well, as long as the safety station is occupied at all times)
    3. All safeties
      1. must be sober/not under the influence of intoxicants
        1. If medical reasons necessitate something that may alter reaction times or judgement (such as narcotics, opiates, muscle relaxers, medical marijuana, etc) then follow the guideline of “if your safe to drive, you are safe to perform” THIS IS ONLY FOR MEDICAL NECESSITY AND IS AT THE DISCRETION OF AUTHORISED FIRE MARSHALS, HEAD CHIRURGEON OR SENIOR CONSTABLE STAFF
      2. Should be trained in flame extinguishing, response times, untangling equipment and audience control
      3. Should be knowledgeable in basic first aid/fire injuries
      4. In charge of onstage and backstage fire safety including emergent and intentional wick extinguishing.
      5. Should prioritize responses as follows
        1. Audience
        2. Venue
        3. Performer
      6. Safeties should be well aware of the various aspects of fire performance and familiar with the routine to be performed.
      7. Will understand the communication standards used by the performers and other safeties
        1. As well as other troupes of performing with them
        2. Will act as main safety group with their troupes performers, will act as backup for other troupes safety personnel
        3. Other troops will reciprocate this exchange
      8. Will defer to the Head Safety if there is different opinions on handling emergencies
        1. When performing with other troopes a “lead head safety” hierarchy should be established between the “head safeties” of the various troopes incase of a conflict between the head safeties
      9. should be dressed with the same care as a performer (see sec. 4.c) and should have a safety towel at all times

  1. Performer
    1. Capable
      1. Should be trained in basic fire safety procedures
      2. Will respond to emergencies involving themselves first (because safety personal will address emergencies in the audience and with the venue first)
      3. Is responsible for their ground fires/ fuel spit
      4. Performers should be in good physical health, with no temporary or permanent debilitating health issue that could interfere with the planned routine
      5. Performers should not attempt performance under the influence of any judgment or reaction impairing substance.
        1. If medical reasons necessitate something that may alter reaction times or judgement (such as narcotics, opiates, muscle relaxers, medical marijuana, etc) then follow the guideline of “if your safe to drive, you are safe to perform” THIS IS ONLY FOR MEDICAL NECESSITY AND IS AT THE DISCRETION OF AUTHORISED FIRE MARSHALS, HEAD CHIRURGEON OR SENIOR CONSTABLE STAFF
    2. Practiced
      1. Each performance should be practiced lit several times to verify duration and capability before a performance is attempted.
      2. Troupe leader should verify performers are ready for an audience
    3. Costume
      1. Regular performance costumes should be made of flame resistant or high heat material (ie can withstand 800 degrees or more, for more than 3 seconds), if available.
      2. If not, each part of the costume should be checked for flammability, and flame retarded if needed.
  2. Fuels –  The principles of fuel safety are to insure that an uncontrolled burn does not occur, and that the audience and passive safety devices are not affected. Performers should have MSDS for all fuels used and be familiar with any special needs for them
    1. Type – there are a variety of fuels, but any fuel used must be approved by Authorized Staff
      1. See sec. 6.c.iv for further fuel information
    2. Storage and Transport
      1. A fuel’s original retail container is usually the best choice for storage and transport. Fuels should be kept out of direct sunlight and away from sparks or flame.
      2. If the original container is too bulky or unavailable, then a sealed metal container inside another container is the best overall choice.
      3. Insure all fuel containers are accurately and clearly labeled.
    3. Backstage Fuels
      1. All primary fueling should take place in a backstage fueling area.
      2. Backstage fuel stations should be manned by the troupe leader, stage manager, prop master, or safety
      3. Always seal fuel containers and dip buckets when not in use.
      4. When at all possible, place the fuel area outside, behind a hard wall; and have a clear corridor from the fuel area to the stage.
      5. Never move wet wicks through the audience without escort. Audience
      6. Smoking should be restricted within 30 feet of fuel station.
      7. If a hard wall between fuel and fire isn’t available, place a Safety between and insure that fuel containers are sealed before any ignition.
    4. Open Onstage Fuel
      1. If an onstage fuel reserve is needed, all effort should be made to restrict quantity and capability of accidental spills.
      2. Highly stable metal containers with self-closing lids are preferred
      3. Unneeded fuel (i.e. after use) should be removed immediately

  1. Performance/Performance Space
    1. Perimeter/Audience Separation
      1. Depending on the nature of the audience an adequate separation from the performer should be maintained to prevent accidental contact.
      2. If the performer will be spinning tools, breathing fire, etc, the audience should be sufficiently separated to allow Safeties to intercept audience members attempting to enter performance area. Usually 15 feet or a barricade is adequate.
      3. If the performer will be using a tool that is predominantly within their field of vision, implicitly under their control (ex. fire fingers, fleshing), or the audience does not require excess management (i.e. seated or fenced), then the performer may approach closer pending troupe leader/Head Safety approval.
      4. Photographers, Musicians, and other people directly helping with the performance may be approved to work backstage or within the audience perimeter upon approval of the Head Safety and/or Troupe Leader
    2. Performance Area
        1. All flames must be extinguished when not in designated performance area/time (as prearranged and listed on performance permit)
      2. The performance area should be cleared of all flammable materials, or flammable materials should be treated with approved fire retardant chemicals and tested for combustibility in a safe manner before performance.
      3. Props and other terrain features should be taken into account when designing a performance, performers should not be in danger of contact with foreign objects.
      4. Careful note of sprinkler systems should be made to determine proximity to performance, possible triggers and other specifics.
      5. During outdoor performance, avoid spinning under or near dry foliage.
    3. Flame/Fume Toxicity
      1. Petrol fuels burnt on open wicks always produce toxic fumes, smoke, or other health hazards that are augmented in an enclosed space.
      2. Petrol fuel burning should be very limited indoors, even in well-ventilated venues.
      3. For outdoor spinning, semi-enclosed areas with low wind can be as hazardous as indoor locations.
      4. Whenever petrol fuels are used, the most purified fuel is preferred.
        1. Recommended fuels
          1. Coleman White Gas (for props only)
          2. Ultra Pure Lamp Oil (recommended for fire breathing, can be used on props)
          3. High Proof IPA (for props only)
    4. Clean Up – Performers and safety crews are responsible for clean up immediately after each performance
      1. fuel buckets should be closed and sealed,
      2. fuel returned to approved transport containers,
      3. fuel stations locked or removed from premises
      4. any residual fuels mopped up and removed if possible
      5. Hot tools should be wrapped in safety cloth until they cool down.
      6. Any exotic materials (i.e. flame retardant) should be removed, locked or guarded.
    5. FIRE FLESHING and FIRE CUPPING are considered “performances” even if they are done in private.
      2. In the case of fleshing, 1 safety who is NOT the person conducting the fleshing must be present
      3. In the case of cupping, the safety may also be the person performing the cupping
      4. 1 Gal of water is sufficient as a safety bucket
      5. A fire extinguisher is required
      6. A wet “hand/kitchen” towel is sufficient for cuppings (a large bath towel will not be required.
      7. The surface cuppings and fleshings are performed on must be flame resistant/proof.

  1. Other
    1. Designated or Authorized staff are as follows
      1. Fire Marshals
      2. Senior Constable Staff
      3. Other assigned personnel as agreed upon by the above mentioned individuals
    2. Rules are subject change based on city/county/state/federal laws.
    3. Rules are subject to change based on event insurance requirements
      1. It is up to the individual performer or safety to make sure they are up to date on current rules and regs.
    5. Fire Marshals, and Senior Constable Staff will have the final say in any disagreements with HEAD OF CONSTAB having final say
    6. Troupe Leader or “Head Safety” must obtain permit from Fire Marshal
    7. Performers/Troupes are NOT entitled to a “warning” before having permit removed.
      1. if policies are violated, but if the violation is not serious, a warning should be given at the discretion of authorized staff
      2. Allowance to participate in future performances, or to remain on site, in the case of a serious or repeated violation, is at the discretion of authorized staff
    8. All performers must have a permit or be performing with a troupe that has a permit given by Authorized staff of SDN
      1. Permits can be revoked for any reason at any time at the discretion of authorized staff
      2. Permits are good for the designated event only
    9. Any Insurance requirements will be determined by Authorized Staff of the event.
    10. All participants in a performance MUST know the “lead safety” by persona AND mundane name.
    11. Any questions/problems should be directed to the Fire Marshals before being brought up to Sr Constab Staff unless a Fire Marshal is unavailable or the problem is with a Fire Marshal